Shoulder Conditions, Injuries & Treatments

Shoulder Fractures

Shoulder fractures are broken bones in the shoulder. Fractures commonly involve the clavicle (collar bone), proximal humerus (top of the upper arm bone), and scapula (shoulder blade).


Osteoarthritis of the shoulder is a gradual wearing of the articular cartilage that leads to pain and stiffness. As the joint surface degenerates, the subchondral bone remodels, losing its sphericity and congruity. The joint capsule also becomes thickened, leading to further loss of shoulder rotation. This painful condition is a growing problem in the aging population.

Shoulder Separation: AC Joint

A shoulder separation is not truly an injury to the shoulder joint. The injury actually involves the acromioclavicular joint (also called the AC joint). The AC joint is where the collarbone (clavicle) meets the highest point of the shoulder blade (acromion).

Shoulder Dislocation

A dislocated shoulder is an injury in which your upper arm bone pops out of the cup-shaped socket that’s part of your shoulder blade. The shoulder is the body’s most mobile joint, which makes it susceptible to dislocation.

Labrum Tears

The labrum is a cup-shaped rim of cartilage that lines and reinforces the ball-and-socket joint of the shoulder. The most common symptoms of a torn shoulder labrum are: shoulder pain, instability and, in some cases, a feeling of grinding, locking or catching while moving the shoulder. The two most common types of labral injuries are the SLAP tear and Bankart tear. Both types of tears are usually accompanied by aching pain and difficulty performing normal shoulder movements.

Rotator Cuff Tears

A rotator cuff tear is a common cause of pain and disability among adults. Each year, almost 2 million people in the United States visit their doctors because of a rotator cuff problem. A torn rotator cuff will weaken your shoulder. This means that many daily activities, like combing your hair or getting dressed, may become painful and difficult to do.

Shoulder Replacement

Shoulder replacement removes damaged areas of bone and replaces them with parts made of metal and plastic (implants). This surgery is called shoulder arthroplasty. Shoulder replacement surgery is done to relieve pain and other symptoms that result from damage to the shoulder joint.

Reverse Total Shoulder Arthroplasty

The major difference between a standard shoulder replacement and a reverse procedure is that in a reverse shoulder replacement the ball and socket parts of the shoulder joint switch sides. This means their natural position is reversed. Reverse total shoulder replacement is a complex procedure and is warranted by certain conditions.

Thrower’s Shoulder

When an athlete develops thrower’s shoulder, the load on their shoulder exceeds the load capacity. The anterior part of the shoulder joint capsule is gradually pulled and stretched. This can decrease the stability of the shoulder joint and may lead to injuries in the rotator cuff.

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